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Table 1 The difference between the mean volume of neuronal nucleus in three age groups of control and autistic subjects

From: Neuronal nucleus and cytoplasm volume deficit in children with autism and volume increase in adolescents and adults

Brain structure 4- to 8-year-old subjects 11- to 23-year-old subjects 29- to 64-year-old subjects
Control Autism Control Autism Control Autism
Mean ± SD (100%) Mean ± SD p< (%) Mean ± SD (100%) Mean ± SD p< (%) Mean (SD) (100%) Mean ± SD p< (%)
Nucleus accumbens 281 ± 44 163 ± 49 -42% 0.001 226 ± 52 213 ± 54 0.959 ns 239 ± 34 253 ± 7 0.224 ns
Purkinje cells 575 ± 63 394 ± 77 -31% 0.001 561 ± 83 552 ± 168 0.635 ns 569 ± 63 654 ± 189 0.368 ns
Claustrum 395 ± 32 233 ± 371 -41% 0.001 360 ± 49 255 ± 67 -29% 0.001 267 ± 16 307 ± 76 0.841 ns
Thalamus 645 ± 56 371 ± 56 -42% 0.001 439 ± 95 433 ± 77 0.186 ns 462 ± 68 581 ± 103 0.035 ns
Globus pallidus 625 ± 93 503 ± 55 -19% 0.001 417 ± 103 479 ± 95 0.611 ns 478 ± 60 489 ± 75 0.918 ns
Dentate nucleus 510 ± 168 305 ± 152 0.104 ns 448 ± 20 489 ± 122 0.312 ns 397 ± 53 501 ± 128 + 26% 0.008
Entorhinal cortex 561 ± 67 408 ± 49 -27% 0.001 502 ± 110 444 ± 98 -11% 0.002 452 ± 69 484 ± 102 0.465 ns
Amygdala 606 ± 24 431 ± 74 -29% 0.001 595 ± 60 520 ± 88 0.691 ns 548 ± 48 498 ± 116 0.184 ns
Magnocellular basal complex 656 ± 45 476 ± 45 -27% 0.001 575 ± 46 581 ± 51 0.051 ns 558 ± 116 611 ± 131 0.028 ns
Putamen 246 ± 39 180 ± 32 -27% 0.014 244 ± 52 231 ± 51 0.443 ns 213 ± 27 223 ± 34 + 5% 0.004
Caudate nucleus 256 ± 54 181 ± 52 0.269 ns 229 ± 44 234 ± 49 0.284 ns 182 ± 26 234 ± 56 + 28% 0.001
Inferior olive 613 ± 122 507 ± 125 -17% 0.001 525 ± 67 553 ± 103 0.905 ns 508 ± 68 551 ± 73 0.481 ns
Magnocellular LGN 455 ± 66 382 ± 85 0.364 ns 457 ± 33 483 ± 85 + 5% 0.001 502 ± 20 567 ± 36 + 13% 0.002
Parvocellular LGN 268 ± 50 217 ± 47 -19% 0.005 264 ± 25 263 ± 48 0.145 ns 284 ± 28 335 ± 37 + 18% 0.001
Substantia nigra 815 ± 122 756 ± 50 -7% 0.001 811 ± 114 816 ± 97 0.202 ns 646 ± 56 685 ± 65 0.057 ns
Ammon’s horn 702 ± 40 576 ± 72 -18% 0.001 702 ± 72 631 ± 79 0.246 ns 683 ± 110 706 ± 138 + 3% 0.002
  1. Significance levels computed controlling for post-mortem interval, days of fixation, days of dehydration, and weight loss during dehydration. Mean nucleus volume ± SD; SD, standard deviation; ns, not significant; LGN, lateral geniculate nucleus.