In vitro studies (SH-SY5Y cells). Immunoblotting detects overexpression of wild-type (WT) and mutant VCPs in transfected SH-SY5Y cells at 48 hours after transfection (a). Expression of any mutant VCP (R155H, M158V, R159H or A232E) is associated with significantly more cytoplasmic TDP-43 (b, c). Values are the means from 5 trials; error bars represent standard deviation; *p < 0.05, One-way ANOVA of Bonferroni’s multiple-comparison, compared with mock and WT. The arrows in “b” indicate cytoplasmic TDP-43-positive cells.