Regulation and protective effects of astrocytic PGC-1alpha. Treatment of human astrocytes with tbH2O2 increased mRNA expression levels of PGC-1α, Prx3 and Trx2 (A). Western blot analysis illustrates that lentiviral overexpression of PGC-1α increases PGC-1α, Prx3 and Trx2 expression (B). PGC-1α+ astrocytes were more resistant to tbH2O2 induced cell death (C) and produced less ROS compared to mock-transduced astrocytes (D). SHSY5Y cells were better protected against tbH2O2 induced cell death when co-cultured with PGC-1α+overexpressing astrocytes compared to mock-transduced astrocytes (E). GFP+ astrocytes co-cultured with SHSY5Y cells did not show reduced viability after tbH2O2 treatment (E). *P < 0.05, **P < 0.01, ***P < 0.001 as determined by students T-test for figure A, C, D and with two-way ANOVA with post-hoc Bonferroni correction for Figure E.