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Table 1 Demographic, clinical and neuropathological signatures of subjects included in this study

From: The problem of axonal injury in the brains of veterans with histories of blast exposure

Case Age/Gender Cause of death Combat history Blast/TBI history Opiate overdose history Anoxic-Ischemic brain changes
1 38M Multi-organ failure Yes Blast 2 mo PTD1 No Purkinje Cell Degeneration
2 23M GSW of head Yes Blast 11 mo PTD2 No None
3 26M Methadone overdose Yes Blast 1 yr PTD Yes Purkinje Cell Degeneration
Concussion due to Assault 2 mo PTD3
4 28M Methadone overdose Yes Blast 4 yrs PTD4 Yes CA1 Cell Degeneration
Purkinje Cell Degeneration
5 25M Alcohol and Opiate overdose Yes Blast PTD unknown Yes Purkinje Cell Degeneration
6 20M Methadone overdose No No5 Yes None
7 24M Opiate overdose No No Yes CA1 Cell Degeneration
Acute brain swelling Purkinje Cell Degeneration
8 48F Methadone overdose Acute hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy
<24 h duration
No No Yes CA1 Necrosis
Purkinje Cell Necrosis
Cortical Necrosis
Basal Ganglia Infarct
9 38F Methadone and cocaine overdose Cerebral edema Early hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy 12 h duration No No Yes CA1 Necrosis Neocortical and Entorhinal Necrosis
10 32F Opiate overdose Cerebral edema
Hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy 48 h duration
No No Yes CA1 Necrosis Neocortical Necrosis
11 18F Opiate and antidepressant overdose No No Yes N/A
12 22F Acute hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy 27 d duration No No No CA1 Necrosis Purkinje and Deep Nuclei Cell Necrosis Cortical Necrosis Basal Ganglia Cell Necrosis
13 26M Cardiac arrhythmia No No6 No CA1 Cell Degeneration
Acute hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy Purkinje Cell Degeneration
14 19M Hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy Yes Blast 19 d PTD7 No CA1 Degeneration
Purkinje Cell Degeneration
Cortical cell death
Basal ganglia cell death
15 16F Hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy
(general anesthesia)
No No No CA1 Necrosis
Purkinje Cell Necrosis
Neocortical Necrosis
Basal ganglia Necrosis
16 45F Hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy
Pneumonia Cardiac arrhythmia <24 h duration
No No No CA1 Necrosis
Purkinje Cell Necrosis
Neocortical Necrosis
17 39M Hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy Asphyxia 4 d duration No No No CA1 Necrosis
Purkinje Cell Necrosis
Neocortical Necrosis
Basal ganglia Necrosis
18 22M Extensive traumatic brain injury No TBI due to MVA 12 d PTD8 No Purkinje Cell Degeneration
Brain hemorrhage
19 21M Intra cerebral hemorrhage No TBI due to Fall 4 d PTD9 No CA1 Cell Degeneration
Brain herniation Purkinje Cell Degeneration
20 18M Extensive TBI No TBI due to MVA 2 d PTD No N/A
21 42M Extensive TBI No MVC 6 d PTD No N/A
22 51M Extensive TBI No MVC 3 h PTD No N/A
23 21M Sudden death Heavy lungs Negative toxicology No No No None
24 28M Sudden death No No No None
Normal autopsy
Negative toxicology
25 21M Sudden death No No No CA1 Cell Degeneration
Stenosis of the coronary ostia Purkinje Cell Degeneration
26 26F Sudden death No No No CA1 and Cortical Cell Degeneration
Mitral valve prolapse Purkinje Cell Degeneration
27 70F Sudden death No No No CA1 Cell Degeneration
Cardiac arrhythmia Purkinje Cell Degeneration
28 26M Heart attack No No No None
29 48F Heart attack No No No None
  1. 1IED; Other clinical problems: Burns 45% TBA; Blast lung; Lung inhalational injuries; Secondary bacterial and fungal infections, 2Multiple IED; Other clinical problems: PTSD, 3(IED) with noncontusional ejection 10 ft past explosion Other clinical problems: PTSD; Cognitive disorder secondary to TBI; Alcohol abuse, 4Other clinical problems: Postconcussive syndrome; PTSD; Depression; Adjustment disorder, 5Other clinical problems: Adjustment disorder with depression and anxiety; Migraine headaches, 6Other clinical problems: Multiple substance abuses, including inhalants and alcohol, 7IED; Other clinical problems: Chest injury; Ruptured spleen; Cardiac arrest, 8Related clinical findings: Multiple skull fractures; right frontal and temporal lobe contusions, 9Related clinical findings: Skull fracture; Left frontal/temporal contusions; subdural hematoma, PTD: Prior to death, CA1: Cornu ammonis 1 area in hippocampus, GSW: Gunshot wound, IED: Improvised explosive device, PTSD: Post-traumatic stress disorder, TBI: Traumatic brain injury, MVA: Motor vehicle accident, TBA: Total body area.