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Table 1 Demographic and clinical data

From: Neurotrophin receptors expression in mesial temporal lobe epilepsy with and without psychiatric comorbidities and their relation with seizure type and surgical outcome

  MTLE MTLE + D MTLE + P Controls Statistics
Male (n) 8 5 7 4 No difference
Female (n) 6 8 6 6
IPI present (n) 9 8 7 n.a. No difference
IPI absent (n) 5 5 6 n.a.
Febrile seizure present in IPI (n) 5 3 5 n.a. No difference
Febrile seizure absent in IPI (n) 4 3 1 n.a.
Febrile seizure unknown (n) 0 2 1 n.a.
Age of first seizure (years) 3.0 ± 2.3 4.3 ± 5.5 6.8 ± 8.4 n.a. No difference
Age when seizures became recurrent or age of onset (years) 10.2 ± 6.4 13.0 ± 8.1 13.8 ± 8.4 n.a. No difference
Seizure type: CPS (n) 6 1 4 n.a. No difference tr
Seizure type: SGS (n) 8 12 9 n.a.
Seizure frequency (monthly) 12.7 ± 10.1 17.2 ± 15.6 11.7 ± 10.1 n.a. No difference
Right HS (n) 6 7 5 n.a. No difference
Left HS (n) 6 4 6 n.a.
Bilateral HS (n) 2 2 2 n.a.
Right handedness (n) 12 11 13 n.a. No difference
Left handedness (n) 1 2 0 n.a.
Bilateral handedness (n) 1 0 0 n.a.
Memory in verbal tasks: average or above (n) 3 7 2 n.a. No difference
Memory in verbal tasks: below average (n) 11 6 11 n.a.
Memory in non-verbal tasks: average or above (n) 9 7 3 n.a. No difference tr
Memory in non-verbal tasks: below average (n) 5 6 10 n.a.
Full scale IQ 82.2 ± 7.9 84.3 ± 9.6 77.2 ± 7.3 n.a. No difference
Years at school 6.2 ± 3.0 5.1 ± 3.6 4.2 ± 2.6 n.a. No difference
Age at surgery (or at death for controls) (years) 36.1 ± 4.7 37.1 ± 5.4 38.0 ± 6.0 48.1 ± 18.9 No difference
Duration of epilepsy (years) 25.9 ± 6.4 24.1 ± 8.9 24.1 ± 8.6 n.a. No difference
Collected side: right (n) 7 8 6 6 No difference
Collected side: left (n) 7 5 7 4
Collected side: left (n) 7 9 6 4  
Surgical outcome: complete remission of seizures (n) 8 2 4 n.a. Fisher’s Exact Test, p = 0.046: MTLE × MTLE + D
Surgical outcome: only auras and/or fewer seizures (n) 6* 11* 9 n.a.
  1. Values indicated as mean ± std. deviation when applicable. A statistical trend (tr: 0.05 ≤ p ≤ 0.07) was observed suggesting a higher proportion of MTLE + D patients with SGS than MTLE, and a higher proportion of MTLE + P patients with worse performance in non-verbal memory tasks than MTLE.
  2. *: Two patients in MTLE group; one patient in MTLE + D, and four patients in MTLE + P group presented with auras and seizures post-surgery; the remaining had only auras, and the proportion was increased in the MTLE + D group. IPI: initial precipitant injury; CPS: complex partial seizure; SGS: secondarily generalized seizures; HS: hippocampal sclerosis; n.a.: not applicable.