Non-lesional epilepsy and control groups. (A) Intense labelling of morphologically different cells types, including macrophages and multipolar cells (inset), around an organising intracranial electrode track mark. (B and C) Paired samples from regions of different ictal activity, based on intracranial monitoring: (B) is from case 34, sample 1 (ictal onset zone) where less pS6 labelling was seen with both markers (illustrated here with pS6 240/244) compared to (C) sample 2 which represented less active/seizure spreading zone where more pS6 labelling of small cells was observed as well as neuronal cells (inset). (D) Temporal lobe cortex with no specific pathology, adjacent to HS, where prominent ‘tramline’ labelling of cortical neurones was observed with pS6 240/244. (E) Another pathologically normal temporal lobe in epilepsy with a prominent perivascular labelling pattern of neuronal cells with pS6 235/236 (arrowhead) and (F) labelling of small glial like cells around vessels in the white matter and inset in the subpial layer (inset). Bar in A, B, C, E, F equivalent to approximately 50 microns and in d to 100 microns.