Rasmussen’s encephalitis. (A) Areas of active encephalitis and cortical scarring highlighted with increased numbers of HLADR-positive microglia/macrophages, as well as interstitial rod-like CD163-positive microglia cells (inset). (B) On adjacent sections, labelling with pS6 235/236 showed a similar distribution of cellular labelling as well as with pS6 240/244 (C). (D) pS6 240/244 highlighted many of the enlarged dysmorphic neurones in RE cases, as confirmed with co-labelling with neurofilaments (inset). (E) pS6 236/26 demonstrated labelling of smaller glial cells as well as (F) bipolar rod shape cells. Double labelling studies in RE cases confirmed the majority of pS6 labelled cells were not GFAP-positive astroglia (G) but co-labelled with populations of iba1-positive cells (microglial marker) (H), nestin and doublecortin (inset) (I) positive cells. Bar in A, B, C equivalent to approximately 100 microns, in d approximately 50 microns and E, F, G, H, I approximately 30 microns.