Altered laminin in the microvascular extracellular matrix of blast-exposed animals. Laminin immunostaining in the visual cortex of a control rat without (A) or with pepsin pretreatment (B). Note the extensive laminin immunostaining after pepsin pre-treatment. Shown in panel C is a section of the visual cortex from a rat that received 3 × 74.5 kPa blast exposures and was sacrificed 10 months after the last blast exposure. The sections have been immunostained for laminin without pepsin pre-treatment. A focal lesion is visible (asterisk). Note the immunostained vessels both adjacent to (arrows) and distant from (arrowhead) the lesion. Scale bar: 400 μm.