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Table 1 Comparison of platelet AD biomarker performance by Hedge effect size

From: Platelets, a reliable source for peripheral Alzheimer’s disease biomarkers?

AD platelet biomarkers Reg. AD AD Hedge ES Controls Pubmed ID
   n Age MMSE   MMSE Age n  
ADAM 10 10a 75 ± 8 16 ± 5 −4.4 27 ± 2 76 ± 7 8 [30]
ADAM 10 11b 76 ± 8 13 ± 5 −2.6 27 ± 2 76 ± 7 8 [30]
ADAM 10 9c 75 ± 8 1 ± 2 −2.0 27 ± 2 76 ± 7 9 [30]
APP total mRNA 20 78 ± 5 17 ± 4 1.8 29 ± 1 76 ± 5 18 [31]
APP KPI mRNA 20 78 ± 5 17 ± 4 1.2 29 ± 1 76 ± 5 18 [31]
APP 115 kDa protein abundance 30 67 ± 10 25 ± 3 1.6 29 ± 1 68 ± 10 23 [32]
APP ratio 130/106-110 kDa ratio 30 67 ± 10 25 ± 3 −2.0 29 ± 1 68 ± 10 23 [32]
APP ratio 130/106-110 kDa ratio 12 71 ± 2 28 ± 2 −1.2 29 ± 2 70 ± 6 10* [33]
APP ratio 130/106-110 kDa ratio 33 68 ± 6 18 ± 4 −2.4 29 ± 1 63 ± 6 26 [34]
APP ratio 130/106-110 kDa ratio 32 72 ± 10 13 ± 7 −3.0 28 ± 4 68 ± 14 25 [35]
APP ratio 130/106-110 kDa ratio 85 68 ± 0 14 ± 7 −2.4 29 ± 2 n.a. 24 [36]
APP ratio 130/106-110 kDa ratio 23 74 ± 9 19 ± 5 −1.1 29 ± 1 70 ± 6 29 [37]
APP ratio 130/106-110 kDa ratio 66 77 ± 10 14 ± 8 −0.1 29 ± 1 73 ± 11 46 [38]
APP ratio 130/106-110 kDa ratio 15 n.a n.a −1.0 n.a n.a 19 [39]
APP ratio 130/106-110 kDa ratio (AChE-inhib.) 20 70 ± 10 19 ± 4 −0.4 28 ± 2 70 ± 10 10 [40]
BACE1-β secretase activity 86 80 ± 7 18 ± 5 0.6 29 ± 1 79 ± 8 115 [41]
BACE1-β secretase activity 52* 76 25 ± 1 0.7 30 74 75 [42]
BACE1 whole protein abundance 15 82 ± 5 19 ± 6 −0.9 29 ± 1 80 ± 5 12 [43]
Calcium intracellular 100 68 ± 7 n.a. 2.0 n.a. 65 ± 9 50 [44]
Calcium intracellular female 60 72 ± 7 18 ± 2 1.6 29 ± 1 70 ± 8 25 [45]
Calcium intracellular male 40 66 ± 5 18 ± 3 1.5 29 ± 2 63 ± 4 25 [45]
Coated-platelet levels 10 n.a. < 20 1.1 n.a. n.a. 19 [46]
Coated-platelet levels 36* 74 ± 8 28 ± 1 0.5 28 ± 1 73 ± 8.8 30* [47]
Coated-platelet levels 20 72 ± 10 23 ± 2 0.9 30 ± 0 74 ± 7 40 [48]
Cytochrome c oxidase activity 10 <60 n.a. −0.8 n.a 61 ± 3 5 [49]
Cytochrome c oxidase activity 10 >60 n.a. −1.0 n.a 61 ± 3 5 [49]
Cytochrome c oxidase activity 20 65 ± 9 18 ± 5 −4.4 n.a. 63 ± 9 20 [50]
Cytochrome c oxidase activity 22 66 ± 9 17 ± 8 −1.5 26 ± 3 63 ± 9 20 [51]
Cytochrome c oxidase activity 6 n.a. n.a. −1.3 n.a. n.a. 8 [52]
Cytochrome c oxidase activity (Complex IV) 8 78 ± 7 17 ± 7 −1.4 30 ± 1 73 ± 5.7 7 [53]
Cytochrome c oxidase activity (Complex IV) 5* 78 ± 10 26 ± 2 −1.4 30 ± 1 73 ± 5.7 7 [53]
GSK3β Ser-9 phosphorylated/total GSK3β 24 76 ± 4 19 ± 4 −1.1 28 ± 3 71 ± 5 23 [54]
GSK3β Ser-9 phosphorylated/total GSK3β 22* 74 ± 7 26 ± 2 −0.6 28 ± 3 71 ± 5 23 [54]
Hyperacidification after activation 19 71 ± 5 n.a. 4.7 n.a. 61 ± 8 14 [55]
Immunoglobulin 25 78 ± 1 21 ± 1 2.7 28 ± 0 71 ± 2 26 [56]
Mao-B activity (phenylethylamine) 20 81 ± 11 5 ± 7 1.0 28 ± 1 80 ± 11 9 [57]
Mao-B activity (phenylethylamine) 15 68 ± 3 n.a. 1.2 n.a. 54 ± 2 8 [58]
Mao-B activity (benzylamine) 50 68 ± 14 n.a. 2.1 n.a. 64 ± 14 50 [59]
Mao-B activity (phenylethylamine) 11 65 ± 1 n.a. 1.2 n.a. 65 11 [60]
Mao-B activity (kynuramine) 11 64 ± 7 14 ± 4 −0.7 n.a. 64 ± 8 11 [61]
Mao-B protein abundance 34 79 ± 8 5 ± 4 1.4 28 ± 2 79 ± 9 34 [62]
Mean platelet volume 126 76 ± 7 n.a. 0.3 n.a. 75 ± 6 286 [63]
Membrane fluidity 12 72 ± 4 11 ± 2 1.0 n.a. 68 ± 4.5 18 [64]
Membrane fluidity 23 74 ± 9 19 ± 5 −0.5 29 ± 1 70 ± 5.8 29 [37]
Membrane fluidity 24 n.a. n.a. −1.6 n.a. n.a. 36 [65]
Membrane fluidity external 100 68 ± 7 n.a. 0.3 n.a. 65 ± 9 50 [44]
Membrane fluidity in submitoch. particles 30 n.a. n.a. −2.3 n.a. n.a. 30 [66]
Membrane fluidity internal 100 68 ± 7 n.a. 0.8 n.a. 65 ± 9 50 [44]
Na+/K + −ATPase activity 100 68 ± 7 n.a. −6.0 n.a. 65 ± 9 50 [44]
Na+/K + −ATPase activity female 60 72 ± 7 18 ± 2 −8.5 29 ± 1 70 ± 8 25 [45]
Na+/K + −ATPase activity male 40 66 ± 5 18 ± 3 −7.3 29 ± 2 63 ± 4 25 [45]
NO production 100 68 ± 7 n.a. 6.3 n.a. 65 ± 9 50 [44]
NO production female 60 72 ± 7 18 ± 2 4.5 29 ± 1 70 ± 8 25 [45]
NO production male 40 66 ± 5 18 ± 3 6.5 29 ± 2 63 ± 4 25 [45]
ONOO production 100 68 ± 7 n.a. 6.8 n.a. 65 ± 9 50 [44]
ONOO production female 60 72 ± 7 18 ± 2 8.4 29 ± 1 70 ± 8 25 [45]
ONOO production male 40 66 ± 5 18 ± 3 8.1 29 ± 2 63 ± 4 25 [45]
Phospholipase A2 activity 16 70 ± 11 n.a. −0.9 n.a. 63 ± 10 13 [67]
Phospholipase A2 activity 21 75 ± 7 14 ± 9 −1.6 28 ± 2 73 ± 5 17 [68]
Phospholipase A2 activity 11* 73 ± 5 25 ± 4 −0.7 28 ± 2 73 ± 5 17 [68]
Phospholipase A2 activity 37 73 ± 6 19 ± 5 0.3 n.a. 72 ± 5 27 [69]
Phospholipase A2 activity 44 75 ± 7 19 ± 5 −0.6 28 ± 4 75 ± 7 66 [70]
Phospholipase A2 activity 59* 72 ± 6 27 ± 3 −0.6 28 ± 4 75 ± 7 66 [70]
Phospholipase C delta protein and activity 10 81 ± 1 1 ± 2 −3.4 1 ± 2 80 ± 2 10 [71]
Serotonin [c] 22 n.a. n.a. −1.5 n.a. n.a. 20 [72]
Serotonin [c] 57 n.a. n.a. 1.0 n.a. n.a. 20 [73]
Tau high molecular weight/monomeric tau 15 81 15 1.6 28 68 10 [24]
TRAP-induced CD62P expression [%] 23 70 ± 8 n.a. −1.2 n.a. 60 ± 10 17 [74]
  1. The Hedge effect size was calculated based on published values of mean, standard deviation, standard error of mean, and sample size. Positive ES indicate up-regulation, negative ES down-regulation in AD patients. aMild AD, bModerate AD, cAdvanced AD, *MCI.