The localisation of phosphorylated p62 in cells. (a) The effect of autophagy or proteasomal inhibitor on the localisation of phosphorylated p62. Confocal immunofluorescence analysis shows that p62 immunoreactivity is weakly observed in cells without stimulation. After stimuli with autophagy or proteasome inhibitors, p62 is primarily observed in the cytoplasm (green) and forms cytoplasmic bodies. P-S349 on p62 (red) is undetectable in cells without stimulation. After Baf treatment for 24 h, P-S349 is observed throughout cells. In contrast, the P-S349 signal is concentrated in cytoplasmic bodies after treatment with the proteasome inhibitors Epo and bortezomib (BTZ). The islet panels indicate higher magnification. (b) After Baf treatment for 24 h, the P-S403 signal is enhanced. Proteasome inhibitors do not induce any signals of P-S403. Scale bar = 20 μm.