Adoptive transfer of antigen specific Th1 cells but not Th17 cells promotes survival after intrathecal virus infection. Naïve CD4+CD25-CD44- T cells from OT-II Ova323-339 specific TCR transgenic mice were polarized under Th1 or Th17 conditions in vitro. On day four of differentiation, activated T cells were transferred into Rag1-/- mice, which had been infected with a recombinant VV expressing ovalbumin (VV-Ova) one day earlier. (A) Kaplan-Meier curves of survival (left) and statistical evaluation of time to death (right) are shown. Horizontal bars in the right plot indicate mean survival time in days (ANOVA, n ≥ 5 per group). (B) Mice were sacrificed on day 6 after transfer and absolute numbers of adoptively transferred CD3+CD4+ T cells in spleens and CNS were assessed (means are indicated by horizontal bars, n = 3 per group).