LAMP-1 levels are enhanced throughout α-Gal A-deficient brain and exhibit vascular localization. Sagittal brain sections from male 20- to 24-month-old α-Gal A +/0 (a-d, i-l, q-t, y-bb) or -/0 (e-h, m-p, u-x, cc-ff) mice were immunolabeled with an antibody against LAMP-1 (a, e, i, m, q, u, y, cc), and fluorescent potato lectin (b, f, j, n, r, v, z, dd) and counterstained with bisbenzimide (c, g, k, o, s, w, aa, ee). Red arrowheads (a, e) indicate areas of intense vascular LAMP-1 immuoreactivity and green arrowheads (b, f) indicate vascular staining in similar locations. White arrows (d, h, p, x, ff) indicate the preferential localization of LAMP-1-positive staining to the vascular endothelium. The images shown were taken from the cerebellum (CB), pons (PONS), hippocampus (HIP), and cortex (CTX) as indicated. Scale bars = 50 microns.