Areas of ischemic injury in human brain are identified by infiltration of monocytes and microgliosis and there is regional overlap with markers of axon degeneration. Adjacent sections were stained (arrow in (a,b) identifies the same vessel). Areas of injury (to the right of the dashed line) are identified by infiltration of monocytes (a), stained by the monocyte marker CD163, as well as by a marker for degenerating axons, APP (b). In addition, a microglial marker (Iba1) highlights enlarged ameboid microglia in areas of injury, which is suggestive of microglial activation (c). Injured regions identified by monocyte infiltration and microgliosis also showed evidence of axon degeneration; shown here is TubulinΔCsp6 (cTub) staining (d-e). Scale in (a-b) is 200 μm, scale in (c-e) is 25 μm.