Vessel changes associated with encephalopathy in Gcdh
mice. Dilation of cerebral veins noted near circle of Willis on underside of Gcdh
−/− mouse brain after protein diet exposure (a, black arrow). Brief Evans blue injection highlights arterial vessels of the circle of Willis (a, white arrow). b Section though cortex at Bregma −2.76 shows dilated left cerebral vein occupying entire space between hippocampus and thalamus (b, red arrow) with standard diet Gcdh
−/− control for comparison (c). d and e shows dorsal aspect of thalamus with overlying cortex and hippocampus removed. Note extreme dilation of internal cerebral veins (e, red arrow) and great vein of Galen (e, black arrow) with normal appearing posterior cerebral artery branch marked with Evans blue injection (e, blue arrow). Vein of Galen is barely visible at this magnification in standard diet Gcdh
−/− control (d, red arrow). f Perfusion fixed sections of Gcdh
−/− mouse brain 36-hours after protein diet exposure shows venous congestion below hippocampus with extrusion of blood into CA3 pyramidal cell layer (arrow). g Perivascular collection of red blood cells outside endothelial layer (thick arrow). Note normal appearing vessel in same region (thin arrow). h and i Striatal sections of immersion fixed brain show congestion of larger “non-exchange” vessels (white arrows, venuole h and artery i). (e-g, Hematoxylin & eosin of perfusion fixed brain, scale bars = 200 μm).