CHI is associated with significant pathology in the inferior olivary and cerebellar dentate nuclei. a Low powered magnification shows increased cellularity of the anteriolateral inferior olivary nucleus (arrows) from the brain depicted in Figure 2e. The increased cellularity makes the edges of the anteriolateral olivary ribbon appear ill-defined relative to the medial aspect of the olivary ribbon. b High powered magnification of the anteriolateral inferior olivary nucleus illustrates that this increased cellularity is due to numerous reactive astrocytes (arrowheads) accompanied by significant neuronal loss with only a few scattered neurons remaining (arrows). c Low powered magnification of the cerebellar dentate nucleus demonstrating an area (arrows) where the border between the nucleus and white matter is obscured due to increased cellularity (arrows). d High powered magnification of the dentate nucleus shows that this increase in cellularity is due to an abundance of reactive astrocytes. There are scattered mineralizations (arrows), but no surviving neurons. All photomicrographs are taken from hematoxylin and eosin stained sections. a and c bar is 500 μm. c and d bar is 50 μm.