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Table 1 Effects of the cytokines on gene expression by rat brain endothelial cells in vitro and on tissue pathology in vivo

From: Intrastriatal injection of interleukin-1 beta triggers the formation of neuromyelitis optica-like lesions in NMO-IgG seropositive rats

  Molecules induced in brain endothelial cells in vitro Effects in the injected brain hemisphere in vivo
Cytokine       Perivascular granulocytic hIgG perivascular Perivascular lesions
Used Cxcl1 Cxcl2 Csf3 Icam1 Vcam1 Infiltrates Leakage C1q reactivity With AQP4 loss
IL-1β +++ +++ +++ + + ++ ++ ++ ++
TNF-α + + - ++ ++ - ++ + -
IFN-γ - - - + + - ++ - -
Cxcl2 - - - - - + ++ - + §
IL-6 - - - - - - + - -
control - - - - - - + - -
  1. Semiquantitative analysis of gene expression studies in rat brain endothelial cells isolated from juvenile and adult Lewis rats, and effects in the ipsilateral brain hemisphere of 3 week-old NMO-IgG seropositive Lewis rats treated with/injected with IL-1β, TNF-α, IFN-γ, Cxcl2, IL-6 or vehicle control (PBS). In vitro effects revealed strong (+++), intermediate (++), or weak (+) induction of Cxcl1, Cxcl2, Csf3, Icam1, and Vcam1. In vivo effects were evaluated by the occurrence of perivascular granulocytic infiltrates and lesions with AQP4 loss, and by the levels of hIgG and C1q reactivity. Please note that only after treatment with IL-1β, all requirements for the formation of de novo perivascular lesions with AQP4 loss and granulocyte infiltration are fulfilled.
  2. (§ represents 3 small lesions found in the ipsilateral hemisphere of 6 animals. These lesions were in close proximity to the needle tract area).