Expression of mutated TDP-43 (deletion of 187–192 AA) results in the formation of inclusions. Immunofluorescent detection of TDP-43 in HeLa cells with anti-TDP-43 antibody (left panel, green), nuclear staining by Hoechst (right panel, blue). A: untransfected HeLa cells; B: HeLa cells examined 48 h post transfection with mutated TDP-43; C and D: HeLa cells examined 48 h post transfection with mutated TDP-43, followed by addition of the mixture of five peptides (10 μM) (C) or the scrambled peptide TC (10 μM) (D) to the culture medium. The peptides effectively inhibited aggregation of TDP-43 in HeLa cells. The experiment was repeated three times with similar results.