TLE4 expression in controls and FCD cases originating from the temporal or frontal lobe. (a-d) Representative sections of TLE immunostaining in control cortex (a), FCD IIIa (b), FCD IIa temporal (c) and FCD IIa frontal (d). Scale bar: 100 μm. TLE4-positive nuclei are present in layer VI of all subgroups indicating the preservation of layer VI. (e) Ratio of TLE4/NeuN cell densities in controls and FCD cases. Numbers of TLE4-positive cells are significantly reduced in FCD IIIa versus control (p < 0.01, one-way ANOVA with Tukey’s post-test) and to FCD FCx (p < 0.05) and in FCD TCx versus control (p < 0.05). (f) Quantification of TLE4 mRNA expression levels by real time RT-PCR. TLE4 mRNA expression did not significantly differ between control or FCD cases.