Macroscopic neuropathology. (A) Superior aspect of brain showed “Moroccan leather” appearance of frontal cortex bilaterally. (B) Inferior aspect of brain showed smooth gyral surfaces. (C) Surface of right frontal cortex corresponding to boxed area in (A), with leptomeninges removed, showed irregular surface of cortical gyri. (D) Coronal slice through the hemispheres revealed bilateral polymicrogyria-like cortical dysgenesis (arrows) involving superior and middle frontal gyri. The gray-white matter junction was irregular in these regions. The corpus callosum was thin, and the lateral and third ventricles were enlarged. (E) Coronal slices of the left occipital lobe demonstrated multiple periventricular nodular heterotopia (arrows). (E’) Magnified view of boxed area in E with multiple heterotopia (arrows). (F-H) The cerebellum exhibited a small, anteriorly rotated vermis with normal number of lobules. (I) Central canal of the lower thoracic and upper lumbar cord was mildly dilated. Scale bars: (in A) A, B, 3 cm; C, 1 cm; D, 3 cm; E, 2 cm; E’, 1 cm; (in F) F, G, 3 cm; H, 2 cm; I, 0.5 cm.