Dysregulation of TDP-43 binding miRNAs in serum and CSF of SALS patients. Relative levels of TDP-43 binding miRNAs in CSF (A) and serum (B) of controls and SALS patients were measured by qPCR. Normalization was performed relative to the spiked-in C. elegans miRNA Cel-miR-39-3p, and to the mean expression of the respective miRNA in the control group. Bars indicate mean ± S.E.M.; n = 22 (SALS) or 24 (healthy controls). (A) CSF samples of SALS patients exhibit a significant decrease of miR-132-5p, miR-132-3p and miR-143-3p as well as an increase of miR-143-5p and miR-574-5p when compared to healthy controls. The decrease of let-7b did not reach statistical significance but showed a clear trend (p = 0.09). (B) In serum samples of SALS patients we found a significant decrease of miR-132-5p, miR-132-3p, miR-143-5p, miR-143-3p and let-7b. Only miR-574-3p, miR-558-3p and miR-663a, as well as our control miR-9-5p, showed no significant changes in CSF or serum samples of SALS patients compared to healthy controls.