Neuropathological changes in epilepsy relative to APOE genotype. Multiple IL-1α (green)/ApoE (red)-immunoreactive plaques were present in 13 of the 53 APOE ϵ3,3 patients (A) – the youngest of which was 17 yrs old – and in 3 of the 17 APOE ϵ3,4 patients (not shown here). One of the six APOE ϵ4,4 patients had Aβ plaques, a 10 year old male (B). The incidence of plaques in patients having each of the APOE allelic subtypes (C). Wilcoxon distribution scores for α-secretase mRNA measured relative to 18s mRNA showed that APOE ϵ4,4 patients (Group 4) had higher levels than did other APOE genotypes, with p values of 0.02, 0.01, and 0.01 for comparisons between group 4 and groups 1, 2, and 3, respectively (D).