Laminar distribution of pathological TDP43 lesions in sections of the same cases immunostained with pTDP43 (A, C, E) and iTDP43 (B, D, F). The predominance of pathological lesions in the upper cortical layers in a case with TDP subtype A (Patient #7) was easily visualized with pTDP43 (A) but not with iTDP43 (B). The presence of pathological lesions across all cortical layers in a case with TDP subtype B (Patient #10) was also obvious on sections with pTDP43 (C) but not on sections with iTDP43 (D). Insets (scale=50 μm) on sections immunostained with pTDP43 (A, C) show NCIs and DNs in the upper layers of a TDP type A case (A) and in both the upper and lower layers in a TDP type B case (C). Insets (scale=50 μm) on sections immunostained with iTDP43 (B, D) demonstrate the broad pathological overlap observed in cases with subtypes A and B – NCIs are observed in the deeper layers in a TDP type A case (B) but not in a TDP type B case (D). While the distinctive long dystrophic neurites characteristic of a case with TDP type C (Patient #13) is obvious with both antibodies, its predominance in upper cortical layers is obvious with pTDP43 (E) in comparison to iTDP43 (F, arrows).