Immunofluorescence detection of PrPres and ASMA in brain tissue of scrapie-infected Tg44+/+ mice. Mice were examined at 250–280 dpi which correlates with early clinical signs [10, 27]. PrPres was detected with D13 monoclonal antibody (green) and ASMA was detected with rabbit anti-ASMA (red) as described in the Methods section. (a) Overview photo showing PrPres plaques (green) and ASMA detection (red). Several capillaries (yellow arrows), one venule (arrowhead) and one arteriole (pink arrow) are shown associated with PrPres plaques. (b) Three separate PrPres plaques (green) are seen. One has a central ASMA-positive arteriole (arrow) and the other two have a central vein (arrowheads). (c) Several capillaries (arrows) and one venule (arrowhead) are located in a group of small PrPres plaques. (d) PrPres plaques in meninges and adjacent parenchyma associated with 4 ASMA-positive arteries or arterioles (arrow) and two veins (arrowheads).(e) PrPres plaque with ASMA-negative vein (arrowhead). (f and g) PrPres plaques with associated ASMA-positive arterioles (arrows). Bars: 25 μm (b and f), 50 μm (a, c, d, e, and g).