In vitro analysis of the cytotoxicity of fluvastatin and/or celecoxib on PA explant cultures. PA explants were grown in DMEM 10% FCS for 10 days and then treated with fluvastatin (240 μM) or celecoxib (100 μM) either alone or in combination. Untreated explants were used as controls. (a) Regarding the 4 level scale that we have established (“unaffected”, “affected +”, “affected ++”, “detached”), we recorded the percentage of explants in each state for each condition in PA-PET explant culture. (b) Ten days after explantation, cell growth was observed around the explants and in untreated conditions, explants and cell growth around the explants were “unaffected” (A). Expression of GFAP (B) and A2B5 (C) was analyzed by immunofluorescent staining to confirm the glial nature of cultured cells. When used alone, 240 μM fluvastatin treatment had little effect on explants but most cells around them mainly became round and lost their adhesion (D, “affected +” state). Celecoxib treatment (100 μM) mainly induced the “affected ++” state: damage to both explants and cell growth (E). Explants treated with the combination were totally disrupted and scattered (F, “detached” state). Scale bar: 100 μm.