LRRK2 contributes to monocyte dysregulation in Parkinson’s disease
© The Author(s). 2016
Received: 18 November 2016
Accepted: 18 November 2016
Published: 24 November 2016
Mutations in the leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) gene are the most common cause of familial Parkinson’s disease (PD) [20, 32]. Common polymorphisms in LRRK2 have been shown to modulate the risk for sporadic PD [6, 23, 24] strengthening the idea that inherited and sporadic PD share common underlying pathways. Although LRRK2 has been associated with a variety of cellular functions, including autophagy , mitochondrial function/dynamics  and microtubule/cytoskeletal dynamics , the overall physiological function of LRRK2 and its role in PD are only partially understood. Relatively recent studies also support a role for LRRK2 as regulator of inflammation. Substantial levels of LRRK2 protein and mRNA have been reported in immune cells like peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), including B-cells, monocytes/macrophages, and dendritic cells [9, 13, 16, 29]. Moreover, LRRK2 has been shown to be involved in the activation and maturation of immune cells , in controlling the radical burst against pathogens in macrophages  and in modulating neuroinflammation by cytokine signaling [10, 19]. Remarkably, elevated levels of serum cytokines (IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, TNFα) in PD patients [4, 22, 27] point to an involvement of the peripheral immune system in the pathogenesis of PD. Recently, we found an enrichment of “classical” CD14++CD16− monocyte subpopulation in the peripheral blood of PD patients together with a dysregulation of inflammatory pathways, phagocytosis deficits as well as hyperactivation of PD monocytes in response to LPS treatment, which correlated to PD severity . Here, we sought to study the contribution of LRRK2 to the dysregulation of monocytes in Parkinson’s disease.
We used a combination of our well established five-color FACS analysis strategy [5, 11] to distinguish “classical” CD14++CD16− (hereinafter referred to as CD14++) monocytes and “non-classical” CD14dimCD16+ (hereinafter referred to as CD16+) monocytes together with the intracellular LRRK2 staining. We found that both monocyte subpopulations were LRRK2 positive (orange histograms Fig. 1b), while the IgG and unstained controls did not show any significant staining (dark and light grey histograms Fig. 1b). Strikingly, we found significantly higher LRRK2 protein levels in CD16+ monocytes (upper panel Fig. 1c) as well as in CD14++ monocytes (lower panel Fig. 1c) of PD patients (n = 26; mean age 71.0 years) compared to age- and sex matched healthy controls (n = 26; mean age 68.7 years). Of note, probands with confounding factors affecting the immune system were excluded from all experiments (a detailed description of the proband cohort can be found in Additional file 1: Table S1). Similar results of elevated LRRK2 levels in monocytes from PD patients were also confirmed with two additional monoclonal anti-LRRK2 antibodies from abcam (MJFF5 (68–7) and UDD3 30(12)) (Additional file 2).
Since monocytes only represent ~ 6–12% of PBMCs  we also asked whether endogenous LRRK2 levels are altered in the remaining cell population predominantly comprising lymphocytes. T cells are devoid of LRRK2 , we thus focused on studying LRRK2 levels in B-cells of PD patients and healthy controls. Of note, we observed a significant reduction in the number of B-cells which has also been described earlier [21, 26] (data not shown). However, as demonstrated in Fig. 1d we did not detect altered LRRK2 protein levels in CD19+ B-cells between PD patients (n = 13; mean age 68.1 years) and controls (n = 17; mean age 71.4 years), indicating that LRRK2 levels are specifically increased in monocytes of PD patients. Our findings may explain previous results showing no increase in LRRK2 protein levels in PD patients’ PBMCs  since the increase of LRRK2 protein in monocytes may be masked by unchanged LRRK2 levels in B-cells.
In summary, we found elevated LRRK2 levels in CD14++ and CD16+ monocyte subsets of PD patients, but not in patients’ B-cells. Furthermore, similar to the dysregulation of monocyte subpopulations found in PD patients , a dysregulation of monocyte subpopulations was detected in LRRK2 overexpressing mice. Our results add to the growing body of evidence that LRRK2 plays an important role not only in neuronal cells but also in immune cells. LRRK2 has been implicated in aspects of monocyte function including monocyte maturation , adhesion, migration, and inflammation [18, 19]. Furthermore, LRRK2 is hierarchically clustered in the tyrosine-kinase like superfamily nearby kinases that are important for inflammatory signaling in immune activation . Moreover, LRRK2 is supposed to function as a stress response kinase since inhibition of LRRK2 in innate immune cells attenuates pro-inflammatory signaling in response to TLR4 activation . During bacterial phagocytosis, LRRK2 translocates near bacterial membranes, and knockdown of LRRK2 interrupts ROS production during phagocytosis and diminishes destruction of intracellular bacteria . LRRK2 is not only found in different immune cells but becomes further upregulated upon exposure to different pathological stimuli like interferon γ (IFNγ) , microbial structures [lipopolysaccharide (LPS)] [10, 13] or viral particles . Our current observation that LRRK2 levels are elevated in monocytes of PD patients establishes a compelling link between a specific role of LRRK2 in immune cells and their contribution to PD pathogenesis. Together with the recent study by Speidel et al. demonstrating a reduction in the non-classical CD14+CD16+ monocyte subpopulation in PD LRRK2 mutant cells  our study forms strong evidence for the involvement of LRRK2 in PD monocyte dysregulation. Our current study also supports the idea that PD monocytes are in a pro-inflammatory predisposition as described earlier  and it might be that together with the co-occurrence of “second hits” like environmental cues or CNS factors triggering the peripheral immune system LRRK2 might be upregulated in monocytes. Together with our findings on a LRRK2-dependent dysregulation of monocytes in a PD mouse model, these results strengthen the idea of a central role of LRRK2 in immune cells and its contribution in peripheral inflammation in PD. Clearly, more studies are needed to determine the role of elevated LRRK2 levels in PD monocytes, its role in dysregulation of monocyte subpopulations and in modulating inflammatory cytokine production. Moreover, the signaling pathways and the pathogenic stimulus actually leading to LRRK2 upregulation need to be determined. Our findings establish a basis for future studies on LRRK2-dependent monocyte dysregulation, peripheral inflammation and its contribution to PD pathogenesis.
Leucine-rich repeat kinase 2
Peripheral blood mononuclear cells
Universitäts- und Rehabilitationskliniken Ulm
The excellent technical assistance of Ramona Bück is gratefully acknowledged. Furthermore, we thank Dorothea Hüske and Susanne Milde for the organization and collection of blood samples.
This research was supported by funds from the Baustein Program Medical Faculty Ulm University (KMD, VG), Charcot Foundation (LZ, ACL, JHW), Juniorprofessorship Program Baden-Württemberg (MK, KMD), the Boehringer Ingelheim Ulm University Biocenter (KMD, CB) and the Thierry Latran Foundation (LZ, JHW).
Availability of data and materials
All data generated or analyzed during this study are included in this published article and its supplementary information files.
CB, LZ and VG performed experiments and analyzed the data. CB, LZ, VG, WPR, DB and JK helped with sample collection. WPR, DB and JK interpreted patients’ clinical data and defined patient cohorts based on PD scores as well as considering confounding immune factors. HLM, PB and FG isolated spleen cells and collected blood samples from LRRK2 KO and LRRK2R1441G mice, respectively. HLM, FG, JK, ACL and JHW gave intellectual input to the study. CB and KD designed the study and wrote the manuscript. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.
The authors declare that they have no competing interests.
Consent for publication
Ethics approval and consent to participate
All human experiments were performed in accordance with the declaration of Helsinki and approved by the Ethics Committee of the Ulm University, Germany. All study volunteers gave informed written consent to participate in the study. PD patients as well as healthy probands were recruited at the Universitäts- und Rehabilitationskliniken Ulm, Germany (RKU).
All mouse experiments with the LRRK2 WT-OX FVB/N mice were performed in accordance with the German Law for the Protection of Animal Welfare (Tierschutzgesetz) and in accordance to the guidelines of the animal research center at the University of Ulm, Germany.
All experiments with the LRRK2R1441G BAC transgenic FVB/N mice were approved by the appropriate institutional governmental agency (Regierungspräsidium Tübingen, Germany) and performed in accordance with the European Convention for Animal Care and Use of Laboratory Animals.
All animal procedures with the LRRK2 KO C57BL/6 mice were approved by the Mayo Clinic Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee (Jacksonville, USA) and were in accordance with the National Institute of Health Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals.
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