Neuron-to-neuron wild-type Tau protein transfer through a trans-synaptic mechanism: relevance to sporadic tauopathies
- Simon Dujardin1, 2,
- Katia Lécolle1, 2,
- Raphaëlle Caillierez1, 2,
- Séverine Bégard1, 2,
- Nadège Zommer1, 2, 3,
- Cédrick Lachaud1, 2,
- Sébastien Carrier1, 2,
- Noëlle Dufour4, 5,
- Gwennaëlle Aurégan4, 5,
- Joris Winderickx6,
- Philippe Hantraye4, 5,
- Nicole Déglon4, 5, 7,
- Morvane Colin†1, 2, 3Email author and
- Luc Buée†1, 2, 3Email author
© Dujardin et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. 2014
Received: 19 December 2013
Accepted: 16 January 2014
Published: 30 January 2014
In sporadic Tauopathies, neurofibrillary degeneration (NFD) is characterised by the intraneuronal aggregation of wild-type Tau proteins. In the human brain, the hierarchical pathways of this neurodegeneration have been well established in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and other sporadic tauopathies such as argyrophilic grain disorder and progressive supranuclear palsy but the molecular and cellular mechanisms supporting this progression are yet not known. These pathways appear to be associated with the intercellular transmission of pathology, as recently suggested in Tau transgenic mice. However, these conclusions remain ill-defined due to a lack of toxicity data and difficulties associated with the use of mutant Tau.
Using a lentiviral-mediated rat model of hippocampal NFD, we demonstrated that wild-type human Tau protein is axonally transferred from ventral hippocampus neurons to connected secondary neurons even at distant brain areas such as olfactory and limbic systems indicating a trans-synaptic protein transfer. Using different immunological tools to follow phospho-Tau species, it was clear that Tau pathology generated using mutated Tau remains near the IS whereas it spreads much further using the wild-type one.
Taken together, these results support a novel mechanism for Tau protein transfer compared to previous reports based on transgenic models with mutant cDNA. It also demonstrates that mutant Tau proteins are not suitable for the development of experimental models helpful to validate therapeutic intervention interfering with Tau spreading.
KeywordsAlzheimer Prion Propagation Secretion spreading
AD is the most common neurodegenerative disorder. It results from an accumulation of extracellular amyloid deposits and a neurodegenerative process called NFD, which is characterised by the intraneuronal aggregation of the microtubule-associated Tau proteins. This Tau pathology has been associated with a number of neurodegenerative disorders, referred to as tauopathies. In contrast to AD, where mutations have not been identified on the Tau gene (MAPT), patients presenting fronto-temporal dementia with parkinsonism, associated with chromosome 17 (FTDP-17), exhibit Tau mutations . These mutations have been used to develop animal models with Tau aggregation and NFD to decipher the role of Tau in tauopathies [2, 3]. However, the relevance of this approach remains unknown, as mutant Tau proteins show a higher nucleation process than WT Tau and fibrillogenesis, often leading to rapid neuronal death [4, 5]. Moreover, in FTDP-17, there is no specific neural network affected by the Tau pathology. Conversely, certain sporadic tauopathies display hierarchical pathways of NFD. For example, in AD, neurodegeneration begins in the trans-entorhinal cortex, spreads to the hippocampal formation, anterior temporal cortex, and polymodal and unimodal association areas and eventually invades the entire cerebral cortex [6–8]. In progressive supranuclear palsy, another tauopathy, a specific pathway of NFD has also been identified leading from subcortical structures to the primary motor cortex through the pedunculopontine nucleus and eventually to other frontal regions . The pathways of NFD have also been described for other tauopathies, such as argyrophilic grain disease, in which Tau aggregation starts in the vicinity of the ambient gyrus, then spreads to the temporal lobe and subiculum and entorhinal cortices and eventually reaches the septum, insular cortex and cingulate gyrus . In addition to differences in these specific pathways, different Tau phosphorylation, isoforms, species and aggregates have also been identified among tauopathies . Taken together, these characteristics are consistent with the presence of different Tau strains that might transfer Tau pathology from cell to cell .
Recent data suggest that Tau pathology may be induced and propagated after the injection of Tau oligomers and/or aggregates in either wild-type (WT) or mutated Tau transgenic mice [11–14]. Moreover, there is evidence that Tau aggregates can be transferred from cell to cell in vitro[15–19]. The hierarchical pathways of NFD in tauopathies might be associated with the trans-synaptic transfer of Tau pathology, as recently suggested in vivo[20, 21]. However, these conclusions could be hampered by at least two factors: the use of a leaky inducible system that may induces the weak expression of the transgene in the hippocampus, and the use of mutated Tau protein to study propagation, as the spreading of Tau pathology is only observed in sporadic tauopathies, where no mutation on MAPT has been identified. In these models, Tau diffusion was consistently observed in close vicinity to the expression region, and no definite evidence of a direct cell-to-cell transfer of pathological Tau proteins was provided.
To address these two weaknesses, we took advantage of a recently developed lentiviral-mediated rat model of hippocampal NFD  to demonstrate that 1) WT Tau protein is transferred in a trans-synaptic manner from primary neurons located in the CA1 region of the hippocampal formation to many anatomically connected secondary neurons in different brain areas including the most distant ones (10 mm away from the injection site (IS)), 2) Tau species found in secondary connected neurons are mainly in a dephosphorylated form and 3) WT and mutated Tau species display differential spreading of Tau pathology.
Monoclonal antibody AT8 (Thermo Scientific MN1020 - 1:400 for immunolabelling) recognises phosphorylated residues serine 202 and threonine 205 of Tau, and monoclonal antibody AT100 (Thermo Scientific MN1060 - 1:400 for immunolabelling) recognises phosphorylated residues threonine 212 and serine 214 of Tau. Tau C-ter is a polyclonal rabbit antibody, which recognises the carboxyl terminal region of Tau . The monoclonal antibody MC1 was a generous gift from Peter Davis and recognises conformational changes in residues seven to nine and 313-322 (1:1000 for immunolabelling). ADx215 is a human specific anti-Tau antibody that recognizes Tau only when Tyr18 residue is dephosphorylated . Mouse monoclonal (Invitrogen P/N-0705; 1:10000 for immunolabelling) and rabbit polyclonal antibodies (1:10000 for immunolabelling) to V5 recognise the V5 epitope of tagged Tau.
The packaging construct pCMVΔR8.92 was used. The Rev gene was inserted into the pRSV-Rev plasmid to minimise the risk of recombination and the production of replication-competent lentiviruses. Viral particles were pseudotyped with the vesicular stomatitis virus G-protein encoded in the previously described pMD2.G plasmid . cDNAs encoding the 2 + 3-10+1N4R isoforms of human WT Tau and mutant P301L Tau were first cloned into the Gateway Entry pCR8/GW/TOPO vector (Invitrogen) using TOPO TA cloning methodology. The Gateway LR clonase (Invitrogen) catalysed the in vitro recombination between the Gateway Entry pCR8/GW/TOPO vector (containing the Tau cDNA flanked by attL sites) and the lentiviral destination vector (containing homologous attR sites). For specific constructs, the sequence of the epitope tag V5, previously validated in vivo using immunohistochemical analysis (14 aa, GKPIPNPLLGLDST) , was inserted into the cDNA encoding the 2+3-10+ isoform of the human WT Tau between the sequences encoding exons two and four.
Production and assay of recombinant lentiviral vectors (LVs)
LVs vectors were amplified as previously described  and encode either for V5-hTau46WT, hTau46WT, hTauP301L or eGFP proteins. Human 293 T cells (4 × 106) were plated onto 10-cm plates and transfected the following day with 13 μg of human Tau cDNA, 13 μg of pCMVΔR8.92, 3 μg of pRSV-Rev and 3.75 μg of pMD.2G using the calcium phosphate DNA precipitation procedure. Four to six hours later, the medium was removed and replaced with fresh medium. Forty-eight hours later, the supernatant was collected and filtered. High-titre stocks were obtained through two successive ultracentrifugation steps at 19,000 rpm (Beckman Coulter SW 32Ti and SW 60Ti rotors) and 4°C. The pellet was resuspended in PBS with 1% bovine serum albumin (BSA) and stored frozen at -80°C until further use. Viral concentrations were determined through ELISA for the HIV-1 p24 antigen (Gentaur BVBA). The p24 protein is a lentiviral capsid protein that is commonly used in ELISA assays to determine the physical titre of lentiviral batches per ml. All viral batches were produced in appropriate areas in compliance with institutional protocols for genetically modified organisms according to the ‘Comité Scientifique du Haut Conseil des Biotechnologies’ (Identification Number 5258).
Neuronal cultures, microfluidic chamber system and assays for the neuron-to-cell transfer of Tau
Briefly, glass coverslips were coated overnight at 4°C with 0.5 mg/ml of poly-D-Lysine (SIGMA). The microfluidic chamber (AXIS™, Temecula, CA) was subsequently placed on coated glass coverslips and sealed to the glass. Rat Primary embryonic neuronal cultures were performed as previously described , and approximately 30,000 cells each were plated in the two wells of the somatodendritic compartment. The cultures were maintained at 37°C for 15 days for differentiation. All chambers had microgrooves of 450 µm in length and 10µm in width. One week post-plating, after axonal growth across the microgrooves, a second rat primary embryonic neuronal culture were plated in the axonal compartment in the appropriate medium. Twenty-four hours later, the V5-Tau-LVs or eGFP-LVs (200 ng of LVs per well) were added to the somatodendritic compartment after first reversing the volume gradient between the compartments to counteract viral diffusion. Forty-eight hours later, eGFP fluorescence and V5 immunolabelling were analyzed. The compartments (somatodendritic and axonal) were washed once with phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) and fixed with 4% paraformaldehyde (PFA) for 20 min. After removing the fixative, the cells were washed three more times with 50 mmol/L NH4Cl and processed as described in the immunofluorescence section.
Testing of fluidic isolation
Isolation of the different compartments in microfluidic conditions without cells was also assessed using either Coomassie Blue or LVs particles. Coomassie Blue (2%) or LVs particles (400 ng p24) diluted in PBS were added to the somatodendritic compartment of microfluidic device and PBS was added to the axonal compartment. The volume gradient between both compartments was adapted to avoid or to mediate diffusion across the microgrooves. 5 min, 1, 2, 24 or 48 h later, optical density at 595 nm was measured.
When LVs particles were used instead of Coomassie Blue, the medium in both compartments was recovered and viral RNA extracted (Nucleospin RNA Virus, MACHEREY-Nagel, Düren, Germany). cDNAs were generated by RT-PCR and PCR done using the following oligonucleotides specific to the viral WPRE (Woodchuck Hepatitis Post-transcriptional Regulatory Element) (forward: 5′-TAC-GCT-ATG-TGG-ATA-CGC-TGC-3′ and reverse: 5′-AAT-TCC-CGA-TGC-GGG-GA-3′).
The animals were purchased from Janvier Laboratories and housed in a temperature-controlled room maintained on a 12 h day/night cycle with food and water provided ad libitum. The present experimental research has been performed with the approval of an ethics committee (‘Comité d’éthique en expérimentation animale du Nord Pas-de-Calais’-CEEA 342012) and follows internationally recognized guidelines.
Stereotaxic injections and sacrifice procedures
Intracerebral injections of viral particles into the brain of anesthetised 2-month-old Wistar rats (Ketamine 100 mg/kg, Xylazine 10 mg/kg i.p.) were performed using classic stereotaxic procedures at the following coordinates relative to bregma: posterior, -5.3 mm; lateral, +/- 6.2 mm; ventral, -7 mm and -6.2 mm; depth. The injections were performed bilaterally. The standard injection procedure consisted of the delivery of 400 ng of p24 using a 10 μL glass syringe with a fixed needle (Hamilton). After injection at a rate of 0.25 μl per min, the needle was left in place for 1 min before reaching the second depth; the second injection was performed after 5 min. Control groups (n = nine) consisted of rats injected with PBS instead of LVs. For anterograde tracing, 5% biotinylated dextran amines (molecular weight 10 000 kilodaltons (kD); BDA 10 000, Invitrogen) were injected using 10 μl glass syringes with fixed needles (Hamilton).
For immunohistochemical analyses, animals were anesthetised (8% chloride hydrate) at two (n = 13), four (n = 13) or eight (n = 13) months post-injection and transcardially perfused first with cold 0.9% NaCl followed by 4% PFA for 20 min before beheading. The brains were immediately removed, fixed overnight in 4% PFA, placed in 20% sucrose for one week and frozen until further use. Free-floating coronal cryostat sections (40 μm thickness) were used for immunohistochemical analysis.
For RNA extraction, rats (n = eight) were deeply anesthetised using 8% chloride hydrate. Brains were dissected, and 1-mm-thick coronal sections were generated using an acrylic rat brain matrix (Electron Microscopy Sciences). The sections were immediately frozen on dry ice and stored at -80°C until further use.
For anterograde transport studies, rats were sacrificed 1 week post-dextran-injection and transcardially perfused with 0.9% NaCl and 4% PFA in 0.1 mol/L phosphate-buffered saline (pH 7.4). Brains were post-fixed for 24 hours in 4% PFA and cryoprotected before freezing for storage. Coronal sections (40 μm thickness) were washed three times in 0.1 mol/L PBS containing 0.2% Triton X-100 and incubated with fluorescein streptavidin (Vector) for 1 hour. After three washes, sections were mounted onto gelatine-coated slides and coverslipped with Vectashield Mounting Medium (Vector).
The sections from the entire brain were washed in PBS-0.2% Triton and treated for 30 min with H2O2 (0.3%). Non-specific binding was then blocked using goat serum (1:100 in PBS, Vector) for 60 min. Incubation with the primary antibody in PBS-0.2% Triton was performed overnight at 4°C. After several washes, labelling was amplified by incubation with an anti-mouse biotinylated IgG (1:400 in PBS-0.2% Triton, Vector) for 60 min followed by the application of the ABC kit (1:400 in PBS, Vector) prior to visualisation with 0.5 mg/ml DAB (Vector) in Tris-HCl 50 mmol/L, pH 7.6, containing 0.075% H2O2. Brain sections were mounted onto gelatine-coated slides, stained for 1 min in a cresyl violet solution (0.5%), washed in water with 2% acetic acid, dehydrated by passage through a graded series of alcohol and toluene and mounted with Vectamount (Vector) for microscopic analysis.
For brain sections: sections from the entire brain were washed in PBS-0.2% Triton and blocked with goat serum (1:100 in PBS, Vector) for 60 min. Incubation with a primary antibody in PBS-0.2% Triton was performed overnight at 4°C. After several washes, the primary antibody against the second antigen was added in PBS-0.2% Triton, and the sections were again incubated at 4°C overnight. Incubation with the two Alexa Fluor secondary antibodies (1:1000 in PBS) was performed for 60 min at room temperature. The slides were mounted with Vectashield containing 4′,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) to label the nuclei (Vector). For cell cultures: sections were rinsed once in 50 mmol/L NH4Cl, and cells were permeabilised with Triton X-100 (0.1%, 10 min at room temperature). Subsequently, the slides were incubated with primary antibodies at 4°C overnight, and labelling was performed by a reaction with the appropriate Alexa Fluor secondary antibodies (1:400-Invitrogen) for 45 min at room temperature. The cells were mounted with Vectashield medium containing DAPI (Vector, Burlingame, USA).
Confocal microscopy was performed using a Zeiss LSM 710 inverted confocal microscope. For each optical section, two fluorescence images were obtained. The signal was subjected to line averaging to integrate the signal collected over two or four lines to reduce noise. The confocal pinhole was adjusted to facilitate a minimum field depth. A focal series was collected for each specimen. The focal step between sections was typically 1 μm.
RNA extraction from brain sections and RT-PCR/PCR
RT-PCR of lentiviral mRNA was performed using total RNA. The brain slices were lysed, and total RNA was extracted using the RNeasy Lipid Tissue kit (Qiagen, France) according to the manufacturer’s instructions. The RNA (1 μg) was denatured for 10 min at 68°C, and cDNA was generated using reverse transcription with 200 nmol/L of dNTPs, 1 ng/μl of random primers, 1 ng/μl of oligo dT, 5 mmol/L of dithiothreitol (DTT), 2 units/μl of RNase Out and 10 units/μl of M-MLV reverse transcriptase. The viral cDNAs were then amplified using oligonucleotides specific to human Tau (forward: 5′-TGG-GGG-ACA-GGA-AAG-A-3′ and reverse: 5′-CCT-CAG-ATC-CGT-CCT-CAG-TG-3′). The following pair of primers was used to amplify murine Tau for calibration: forward: 5′-CAC-AAT-GGA-AGA-CCA-GGC-C-3′ and reverse: 5′-TAA-GCC-ATG-GCT-CAT-GTC-TCC-3′. PCR was performed using 2 μl of the previously obtained RT products, reverse and forward primers (0.5 μmol/L), dNTPs (1 μmol/L) and 0.02 unit/μl of DNA polymerase in a commercial reaction buffer (GoTaq Green Master Mix, Promega). The PCR products were electrophoresed on an 8% acrylamide gel stained with 1 μg/ml ethidium bromide.
A mechanism of trans-synaptic transfer of WT Tau protein can be demonstrated in vitro
We first determined whether the human WT Tau protein could be transferred between neuronal cells. Using a microfluidic device [27–29] comprising two compartments connected through embedded microgrooves, we studied the potential transfer of WT Tau from the somatodendritic compartment seeded with rat primary neurons to an axonal compartment seeded with a second rat primary embryonic neuronal culture. Microfluidic devices have already been validated for the axonal transport of recombinant α-synuclein or Tau [29, 30]. To address this question in our LVs assay and to characterise the human Tau protein, we designed a new LV encoding a WT Tau with a V5 epitope (See Additional file 1). First of all, we performed several assays to control that LVs are not able to diffuse in the microgroove or to traffic along the microtubule (See Additional file 2).
A mechanism of trans-synaptic transfer of WT Tau protein can be demonstrated in vivo
We therefore concluded that WT V5-Tau protein, expressed in CA1 neurons, can be 1) transported through normal CA1-efferent projections even to distant brain regions, such as the olfactory and limbic systems and 2) secreted and transferred intercellularly to secondary neurons located in CA1 efferent regions.
Transferred Tau species are mainly in a dephosphorylated state
In the present study, we demonstrated in vivo that WT Tau proteins are transferred through primary neurons from the IS to secondary neurons in distant rat brain areas to initiate Tau pathology. Recent studies have shown that the Tau pathology might spread in vivo through mono-synaptic connections in the hippocampal formation [20, 21]. Nevertheless, the transfer of Tau proteins from neuron to neuron has not been conclusively demonstrated. For example, hippocampal NFD might result from either trans-synaptic transfer or signal transduction associated with neuronal processes, such as receptor activation through Tau aggregation/oligomerisation [39, 40].
In vitro, there is now considerable evidence demonstrating that Tau is secreted into the extracellular medium [15, 17, 18, 30, 41–44] and that Tau aggregates are internalised in different cell lines [15–19, 41, 45, 46]. Nevertheless, to date there has been no evidence of trans-synaptic protein transfer.
In vivo, Tau aggregates from P301S transgenic mice and human brains, injected into Alz17 mice (mouse strain overexpressing the longest Tau isoform), were captured/internalised by neurons at the IS. Some degree of diffusion was observed at the vicinity of the IS, reminiscent of Tau spreading [11, 12]. In contrast, an inducible mouse line, in which the tTA activator is driven through a neuropsin promoter specific for the entorhinal cortex, was cross-bred with the tetracycline-inducible Tau Tg mouse line, rTg4510, expressing human four-repeat Tau with the P301L mutation. In the resulting rTgTauEC mice, neurons expressing P301L Tau species in the trans-entorhinal cortex underwent NFD [20, 21]. Associated hippocampal neurons also degenerated with time, although there was no demonstration of a trans-synaptic transfer, as hippocampal NFD might also result from signal transduction related to receptors activation through Tau aggregation/oligomerisation. Moreover, the authors reported that hippocampal neurons also express mutated Tau species that may result from the non-specific activity of the neuropsin promoter [21, 47]. To conclude, until now, only in vivo models of Tau capture [12, 48] and/or Tau secretion have been developed .
The present study represents the first clear demonstration of the in vivo transfer of Tau proteins between anatomically connected neurons at distant brain (d > 10 mm). Within five months, Tau proteins spread to connected areas, such as the limbic and olfactory regions, where it appeared within secondary neurons. These V5-immunoreactive Tau species were primarily dephosphorylated (AT8 negative, ADx215 positive), suggesting that normal soluble Tau might be secreted and transferred into secondary neurons. Altogether these observations were further supported through studies in microfluidic chambers, where WT V5-Tau was identified, after 48 hours, in the axonal compartment in primary neurons. These results support previous data showing that Tau is secreted in a dephosphorylated state [41, 43, 49] and may activate muscarinic receptors (M1 and M3) leading to intracellular dysfunctions [40, 49].
In this present study, we also demonstrated differential Tau spreading between WT Tau and mutant P301L Tau. Most studies of Tau propagation have used mutant forms, although a majority of tauopathies are sporadic and involve only the WT species and whether WT human Tau spreads as readily as the FTDP-17 Tau mutant is unknown. In the present model, Tau pathology associated with WT Tau was observed in brain areas connected to the IS, further supporting a trans-synaptic mechanism. In contrast, the Tau pathology induced through mutant P301L Tau protein remained near the LV injection site. Because P301L Tau mutant shows better nucleation and more rapid fibrillogenesis than does WT Tau , it is likely that the mutant protein might aggregate more readily, as observed using AT100-immunoreactivity, leaving fewer soluble species to migrate through axons. Moreover, consistent with the results of Caillierez et al. , neuronal death is higher with the P301L Tau mutant than with the WT Tau species. Such differential behaviour between the two Tau species also supports the in vivo specific trans-synaptic transfer of soluble Tau species rather than aggregates, as suggested using WT V5-Tau.
These findings also support the concept that Tau transmission occurs in sporadic diseases, such as AD, whereas Tau toxicity, leading to neuronal loss, more readily occurs in aggressive Tauopathies (FTDP-17) where all neurons have the mutant Tau, causing damage without spreading . Taken together, the data derived from this in vivo model suggest that soluble/oligomeric forms of Tau protein drive spreading as suggested by Kayed’s group [14, 50].
Finally, from data obtained from our in vivo model, one may argue that only a few secondary neurons displayed AT8-immunoreactivity and that it remains unclear whether this effect reflects the transfer of hyperphosphorylated Tau or a subsequent V5-Tau hyperphosphorylation occurring in secondary neurons. In any way, a few pathological Tau species are present in secondary neurons. Such observations are consistent with the slow kinetics of Tau spreading observed in sporadic Tauopathies. For in instance, in AD, the hierarchical spreading of Tau pathology, defined by the Braak stages, may last for 20 years . Moreover, results generated from our model are of great relevance for future clinical investigations. Indeed, the discovery of distinct secreted/non secreted Tau species will define new perspectives in diagnosis of neurodegenerative diseases. Selection of patients at the beginning of the NFD spreading will then allowed the test of new therapeutics that would block this spreading and subsequently slow down the development of sporadic disease such as AD at the asymptomatic stages of disease. In this context for instance, Tau immunotherapy may be relevant for interfering with NFD in AD and related disorders referred to as Tauopathies. We showed previously than active immunotherapy allows for Tau clearance in the periphery and improves cognitive deficits promoted by Tau pathology in a well-defined mutant Tau mutant model . More recently, passive immunotherapy further supports the targeting of extracellular Tau .
In conclusion, independent of the mechanisms involved in Tau spreading, we demonstrated for the first time in vivo that the specific trans-synaptic transfer of Tau protein from degenerating neurons might lead to the preliminary steps of Tau pathology in secondary neurons. These data are of great interest considering that most tauopathies reflect the aggregation of Tau devoid of mutation. In the future, this model will facilitate a better understanding of Tau spread throughout the brain in sporadic tauopathies.
Accumbens nucleus shell
Anterior olfactory nucleus lateral part
Primary auditory cortex
Secondary auditory cortex dorsal area
Secondary auditory cortex ventral area
Fields of the hippocampus
Dorsal endopiriform nucleus
Dorsal peduncular cortex
Fimbria of the hippocampus
Forceps minor of the corpus callosum
Forceps major of the corpus callosum
Granular layer of olfactory bulb
Lateral entorhinal cortex
Lateral orbital cortex
Lateral septal nucleus dorsal part
Lateral septal nucleus intermediate part
Lateral septal nucleus ventral part
Parietal association cortex
Temporal association cortex
Secondary visual cortex lateral area
Ventral endopiriform nucleus.
This work was developed and supported through the LabEx DISTALZ (Laboratory of Excellence, Development of Innovative Strategies for a Transdisciplinary approach to ALZheimer’s disease), the FUI MEDIALZ and CPER DN2M (VICTAUR grant). This study was also supported by Inserm, CNRS, University of Lille 2, LMCU (Lille Métropole Communauté Urbaine), Région Nord/Pas-de-Calais, FEDER and grants from the European Community: MEMOSAD (FP7 contract 200611) and the ‘Fondation Plan Alzheimer’ (PRIMATAU project). JW acknowledges the funding provided through the KU Leuven-IOF programme and the IWT-Baekeland programme for the development of the ADx215/YT1.15 antibody. We thank the Institut de Médecine Prédictive et de Recherche Thérapeutique (IMPRT, Lille) for access to core facilities (confocal microscopy, Meryem. Tardivel and animal facility, Delphine Taillieu). We also would like to thank Dr. Eugeen Vanmechelen (Ghent, Belgium) for advice. We thank Peter Davies (AECOM, NY USA) for providing the MC1 antibody.
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